In December, parliament speaker Setya Novanto resigned amid allegations that he demanded a 20 percent stake in mining company Freeport Indonesia in exchange for accelerating a contract renewal.
An air-pollution crisis, driven in large part by the illegal clearing of forest for agriculture, affected parts of Indonesia and the surrounding region, underscoring the authorities' failure to enforce existing regulations and rein in influential resource-extraction companies.
Of the 269 jurisdictions that conducted balloting, the court received complaints from 132; Papua generated the largest number of complaints, with 16.
Under a 2012 law, the hereditary sultan of Yogyakarta is that region's unelected governor.
Some local governments have discriminated against minorities by restricting access to national identification cards, birth certificates, marriage licenses, and other bureaucratic necessities, limiting their political rights and electoral opportunities.
However, despite growing religious intolerance and historical hostility toward certain ethnic groups, a number of minority politicians won important posts in 2014, including Jakarta governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama ("Ahok"), an ethnic Chinese Christian, and DPR member Jalaludin Rakhmat, a Shiite Muslim.
Broader reform efforts were hampered by institutional rivalry between what has become known as a "judicial mafia" – including elements of the national police, the parliament, and some judicial bodies – and reform-oriented agencies such as the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK).
President Joko Widodo ("Jokowi") appeared unable to control the infighting, casting doubt on his anticorruption and reformist credentials.
An increasing number of local election results have been disputed at the Constitutional Court.
Jokowi, the candidate of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), won the July 2014 presidential election with 53 percent of the vote, defeating former general Prabowo Subianto.
The PDI-P, the party of former president Megawati Sukarnoputri, led the April 2014 DPR elections with 19 percent of the vote and 109 seats.
Three Islamic parties – the National Mandate Party (PAN), National Awakening Party (PKB), and United Development Party (PPP) – increased their total vote share, taking 49, 47, and 39 seats, respectively.
A fourth, the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), fell to 40 seats.
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